INFORMATION CHANGE THE WORLD

International Journal of Image, Graphics and Signal Processing(IJIGSP)

ISSN: 2074-9074 (Print), ISSN: 2074-9082 (Online)

Published By: MECS Press

IJIGSP Vol.6, No.3, Feb. 2014

Adaptive Quantization Index Modulation Audio Watermarking based on Fuzzy Inference System

Full Text (PDF, 597KB), PP.1-11


Views:113   Downloads:2

Author(s)

Sunita V. Dhavale,Rajendra S. Deodhar,Debasish Pradhan,L.M. Patnaik

Index Terms

Discrete Cosine Transform;Spectral Flux;Adaptive Audio Watermarking; Quantized Index Modulation;Fuzzy Inference

Abstract

Many of the adaptive watermarking schemes reported in the literature consider only local audio signal properties. Many schemes require complex computation along with manual parameter settings. In this paper, we propose a novel, fuzzy, adaptive audio watermarking algorithm based on both global and local audio signal properties. The algorithm performs well for dynamic range of audio signals without requiring manual initial parameter selection. Here, mean value of energy (MVE) and variance of spectral flux (VSF) of a given audio signal constitutes global components, while the energy of each audio frame acts as local component. The Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) step size Δ is made adaptive to both the global and local features. The global component automates the initial selection of Δ using the fuzzy inference system while the local component controls the variation in it based on the energy of individual audio frame. Hence Δ adaptively controls the strength of watermark to meet both the robustness and inaudibility requirements, making the system independent of audio nature. Experimental results reveal that our adaptive scheme outperforms other fixed step sized QIM schemes and adaptive schemes and is highly robust against general attacks.

Cite This Paper

Sunita V. Dhavale, Rajendra S. Deodhar, Debasish Pradhan, L.M. Patnaik,"Adaptive Quantization Index Modulation Audio Watermarking based on Fuzzy Inference System", IJIGSP, vol.6, no.3, pp.1-11, 2014.DOI: 10.5815/ijigsp.2014.03.01

Reference

[1]S. Katzenbeisser, F.A.P. Petitcolas (Eds.), "Information Hiding Techniques for Steganography and Digital Watermarking", Artech House Inc., 2000. 

[2]Foo, S.W., Muh, H.S. and Mei, N.M., "Audio watermarking using time frequency compression expansion", IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, May 2004, Vol. 3, pp. 201-204.

[3]Xiangyang Wang, Wei Qi, and Panpan Niu, "A New Adaptive Digital Audio Watermarking Based on Support Vector Regression", IEEE Transactions on audio, speech and language processing, Nov 2007, Vol. 15, No. 8, pp. 2270 - 2277.

[4]D. Kirovski and H. S. Malvar, "Spread spectrum watermarking of audio signals," IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Apr. 2003, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1020-1033.

[5]Shaoquan Wu, Jiwu Huang, Daren Huang and Shi, Y.Q., "Self-Synchronized Audio Watermark in DWT Domain", In Proceedings of the International Symposium in Circuits and Systems, May 2004, vol.5, pp. 712-715.

[6]Shaoquan Wu, Jiwu Huang, Daren Huang and Yun Q. Shi, "Efficiently Self-Synchronized Audio Watermarking for Assured Audio Data Transmission", IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 2005, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 69-76.

[7]Zhiping Zhou and Lihau Zhou, "A Novel Algorithm for Robust Audio Watermarking Based on Quantification DCT Domain", In 3rd International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing, Nov 2007, vol.1, pp. 441-444.

[8]Wang, X., and Zhao, H., "A novel synchronization invariant audio watermarking scheme based on DWT and DCT", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Dec 2006, vol. 54, no.12, 4835-4840.

[9]Brian Chen and G. W. Wornell, "Quantization Index Modulation Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding of Multimedia", Journal of VLSI Signal Processing Systems for Signal Image and Video Technology, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, Feb 2001, Vol. 27, pp. 7-33. 

[10]B. Chen and G.W. Wornell, "Quantization Index Modulation: A Class of Provably Good Methods for Digital Watermarking and Information Embedding," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, May 2001, Vol 47, no. 4, pp. 1423-1443.

[11]Qiao Li, "Using Perceptual Models to Improve Fidelity and Provide Resistance to Valumetric Scaling for Quantization Index Modulation Watermarking", IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, June 2007, Vol. 2 , No. 2, pp. 127-139.

[12]Foo, S.W., Yeo, T.H. and Huang, D.Y., "An adaptive audio watermarking system", In Proceeding of the IEEE International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Technology, 2001, Vol.2, pp. 509-513.

[13]X. Li, M. Zhang and S. Sun, "Adaptive audio watermarking algorithm based on SNR in wavelet watermarking scheme," Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Engineering, 2003, pp. 287 - 292.

[14]N. Sriyingyong and K. Attakitmongcol, "Wavelet-Based Audio Watermarking Using Adaptive Tabu Search", First International Symposium on Wireless Pervasive Computing, 16-18 Jan. 2006, pp. 1-5.

[15]Vivekananda Bhat K., Indranil Sengupta, Abhijit Das, "An adaptive audio watermarking based on the singular value decomposition in the wavelet domain", Digital Signal Processing, Elsevier Inc., 2010, 1547-1558.

[16]Nicolas Scaringella, Giorgio Zoia, and Daniel Mlynek, "Automatic Genre Classification of Music Content: A survey", IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, Mar. 2006, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 133-141.

[17]G. Tzanetakis and P. Cook, "Musical genre classification of audio signals," IEEE Transactions on Speech Audio Processing, July 2002, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 293-302.

[18]Tao Yu, and John H. L. Hansen, "Automatic Beamforming for Blind Extraction of Speech from Music Environment using Variance of Spectral Flux-Inspired Criterion", IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Vol. 4, No. 5, Oct. 2010, pp. 785-797.