International Journal of Computer Network and Information Security (IJCNIS)

ISSN: 2074-9090 (Print)

ISSN: 2074-9104 (Online)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis

Website: https://www.mecs-press.org/ijcnis

Published By: MECS Press

Frequency: 6 issues per year

Number(s) Available: 130

(IJCNIS) in Google Scholar Citations / h5-index

IJCNIS is committed to bridge the theory and practice of computer network and information security. From innovative ideas to specific algorithms and full system implementations, IJCNIS publishes original, peer-reviewed, and high quality articles in the areas of computer network and information security. IJCNIS is well-indexed scholarly journal and is indispensable reading and references for people working at the cutting edge of computer network, information security, and their applications.

 

IJCNIS has been abstracted or indexed by several world class databases: ScopusSCImago, Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic Search, CrossRef, Baidu Wenku, IndexCopernicus, IET Inspec, EBSCO, VINITI, JournalSeek, ULRICH's Periodicals Directory, WorldCat, Scirus, Academic Journals Database, Stanford University Libraries, Cornell University Library, UniSA Library, CNKI Scholar, ProQuest, J-Gate, ZDB, BASE, OhioLINK, iThenticate, Open Access Articles, Open Science Directory, National Science Library of Chinese Academy of Sciences, The HKU Scholars Hub, etc..

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IJCNIS Vol. 16, No. 2, Apr. 2024

REGULAR PAPERS

Vulnerability Detection in Intelligent Environments Authenticated by the OAuth 2.0 Protocol over HTTP/HTTPS

By Gilson da Silva Francisco Anderson Aparecido Alves da Silva Marcelo Teixeira de Azevedo Eduardo Takeo Ueda Adilson Eduardo Guelfi Jose Jesus Perez Alcazar

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.01, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

OAuth 2.0 provides an open secure protocol for authorizing users across the web. However, many modalities of this standard allow these protections to be implemented optionally. Thus, its use does not guarantee security by itself and some of the deployment options in the OAuth 2.0 specification can lead to incorrect settings. FIWARE is an open platform for developing Internet applications of the future. It is the result of the international entity Future Internet Public-Private Partnership. [1,2] FIWARE was designed to provide a broad set of API to stimulate the development of new businesses in the context of the European Union. This platform can be understood as a modular structure to reach a broad spectrum of applications such as IoT, big data, smart device management, security, open data, and virtualization, among others. Regarding security, the exchange of messages between its components is done through the OAuth 2.0 protocol. The objective of the present work is to create a system that allows the detection and analysis of vulnerabilities of OAuth 2.0, executed on HTTP/HTTPS in an on-premise development environment focused on the management of IoT devices and to help developers to implement them ensuring security for these environments. Through the system proposed by this paper, it was possible to find vulnerabilities in FIWARE components in HTTP/HTTPS environments. With this evidence, mitigations were proposed based on the mandatory recommendations by the IETF.

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Integrated Spatial and Temporal Features Based Network Intrusion Detection System Using SMOTE Sampling

By Shrinivas A. Khedkar Madhav Chandane Rasika Gawande

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.02, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

With attackers discovering more inventive ways to take advantage of network weaknesses, the pace of attacks has drastically increased in recent years. As a result, network security has never been more important, and many network intrusion detection systems (NIDS) rely on old, out-of-date attack signatures. This necessitates the deployment of reliable and modern Network Intrusion Detection Systems that are educated on the most recent data and employ deep learning techniques to detect malicious activities. However, it has been found that the most recent datasets readily available contain a large quantity of benign data, enabling conventional deep learning systems to train on the imbalance data. A high false detection rate result from this. To overcome the aforementioned issues, we suggest a Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique (SMOTE) integrated convolution neural network and bi-directional long short-term memory SCNN-BIDLSTM solution for creating intrusion detection systems. By employing the SMOTE, which integrates a convolution neural network to extract spatial features and a bi-directional long short-term memory to extract temporal information; difficulties are reduced by increasing the minority samples in our dataset. In order to train and evaluate our model, we used open benchmark datasets as CIC-IDS2017, NSL-KDD, and UNSW-NB15 and compared the results with other state of the art models.

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Detecting Android Malware by Mining Enhanced System Call Graphs

By Rajif Agung Yunmar Sri Suning Kusumawardani Widyawan Widyawan Fadi Mohsen

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.03, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

The persistent threat of malicious applications targeting Android devices has been growing in numbers and severity. Numerous techniques have been utilized to defend against this thread, including heuristic-based ones, which are able to detect unknown malware. Among the many features that this technique uses are system calls. Researchers have used several representation methods to capture system calls, such as histograms. However, some information may be lost if the system calls as a feature is only represented as a 1-dimensional vector. Graphs can represent the interaction of different system calls in an unusual or suspicious way, which can indicate malicious behavior. This study uses machine learning algorithms to recognize malicious behavior represented in a graph. The system call graph was fed into machine learning algorithms such as AdaBoost, Decision Table, Naïve Bayes, Random Forest, IBk, J48, and Logistic regression. We further employ a series feature selection method to improve detection accuracy and eliminate computational complexity. Our experiment results show that the proposed method has reduced feature dimension to 91.95% and provides 95.32% detection accuracy.

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Hybrid Cryptographic Approach for Data Security Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography for IoT

By Dilip Kumar Manoj Kumar

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.04, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

The Internet of Things (IoT) technology has changed the contemporary digital world. Devices connected to the IoT have sensors embedded within them. All these devices are purposely connected to share data among them through the Internet. Data sharing among IoT devices needs some security protocols to maintain the privacy and confidentiality of information. IoT devices have less computing power to perform various operations of a cryptographic process. So, there is a need of cryptographic approach to reduce the computational complexity for resource-constrained devices and provide data security. However, storing data over the cloud server also reduces storage overhead, but data transmission via the cloud is not always secure. Data integrity and authentication can be compromised because the end user can only access the data with the help of a cloud server. To ensure the security and integrity of the data, various cryptographic techniques are used. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a secure and optimized hybrid cryptographic scheme for the secure sharing of data by combining Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). To ensure authentication and data integrity, the proposed scheme primarily uses the Message Authentication Code (MAC). The encrypted messages are stored on a cloud server to reduce storage overhead. The experimental findings demonstrate that the proposed scheme is effective and produces superior results as compared to existing approaches.

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A Secure VM Placement Strategy to Defend against Co-residence Attack in Cloud Datacentres

By Ankita Srivastava Narander Kumar

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.05, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

With the increasing number of co-residence attacks, the security of the multi-tenant public IaaS cloud environment has become a growing concern. The co-residence attacker creates a side channel to retrieve the secured data. These attacks help the adversary to leak out the sensitive information of the user with whom it is co-located. This paper discusses a secured VM placement technique, Previous Server and Co-resident users First (PSCF), which focuses on facilitating security against the co-residence attack by minimizing the probability of co-locating the malicious user with the authentic user. Co-location resistance and core utilization metrics are utilized to evaluate the algorithm’s performance. The proposed method is simulated, and the result is analysed and compared with existing approaches like Best Fit, Worst Fit, PSSF, and SC-PSSF. It is observed that the proposed approach furnished maximum co-location resistance of 74.32% and a core utilization of 82.63%. Further, the algorithm has shown significant performance in balancing the load and energy consumption. The result has reduced the probability that malicious users co-located with the authentic one, thus reducing the security breach of confidential information. 

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Individual Updating Strategies-based Elephant Herding Optimization Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing in Cloud Environments

By Syed Muqthadar Ali N. Kumaran G.N. Balaji

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.06, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

In this manuscript, an Individual Updating Strategies-based Elephant Herding Optimization Algorithm are proposed to facilitate the effective load balancing (LB) process in cloud computing. Primary goal of proposed Individual Updating Strategies-based Elephant Herding Optimization Algorithm focus on issuing the workloads pertaining to network links by the purpose of preventing over-utilization and under-utilization of the resources. Here, NIUS-EHOA-LB-CE is proposed to exploit the merits of traditional Elephant Herd Optimization algorithm to achieve superior results in all dimensions of cloud computing. In this NIUS-EHOA-LB-CE achieves the allocation of Virtual Machines for the incoming tasks of cloud, when the number of currently processing tasks of a specific VM is less than the cumulative number of tasks. Also, it  attains potential load balancing process differences with the help of each individual virtual machine’s processing time and the mean processing time (MPT) incurred by complete virtual machine. Efficacy of the proposed technique activates the Cloudsim platform. Experimental results of the proposed method shows lower Mean Response time 11.6%, 18.4%, 20.34%and 28.1%, lower Mean Execution Time 78.2%, 65.4%, 40.32% and 52.6% compared with existing methods, like Improved Artificial Bee Colony utilizing Monarchy Butterfly Optimization approach for Load Balancing in Cloud Environments (IABC-MBOA-LB-CE), An improved Hybrid Fuzzy-Ant Colony Algorithm Applied to Load Balancing in Cloud Computing Environment (FACOA-LB-CE), Hybrid firefly and Improved Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization for energy efficient LB in Cloud environments (FF-IMOPSO-LB-CE) and A hybrid gray wolf optimization and  Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm for load balancing in cloud computing environment (GWO-PSO-LB-CE).

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Optimized Intrusion Detection System in Fog Computing Environment Using Automatic Termination-based Whale Optimization with ELM

By Dipti Prava Sahu Biswajit Tripathy Leena Samantaray

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.07, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

In fog computing, computing resources are deployed at the network edge, which can include routers, switches, gateways, and even end-user devices. Fog computing focuses on running computations and storing data directly on or near the fog devices themselves. The data processing occurs locally on the device, reducing the reliance on network connectivity and allowing for faster response times. However, the conventional intrusion detection system (IDS) failed to provide security during the data transfer between fog nodes to cloud, fog data centres. So, this work implemented the optimized IDS in fog computing environment (OIDS-FCE) using advanced naturally inspired optimization algorithms with extreme learning. Initially, the data preprocessing operation maintains the uniform characteristics in the dataset by normalizing the columns. Then, comprehensive learning particle swarm based effective seeker optimization (CLPS-ESO) algorithm extracts the intrusion specific features by analyzing the internal patterns of all rows, columns. In addition, automatic termination-based whale optimization algorithm (ATWOA) selects the best intrusion features from CLPS-ESO resultant features using correlation analysis. Finally, the hybrid extreme learning machine (HELM) classifies the varies instruction types from ATWOA optimal features. The simulation results show that the proposed OIDS-FCE achieved 98.52% accuracy, 96.38% precision, 95.50% of recall, and 95.90% of F1-score using UNSW-NB dataset, which are higher than other artificial intelligence IDS models. 

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An Efficient and Secure Blockchain Consensus Algorithm Using Game Theory

By Naveen Arali Narayan D. G. Altaf Husain M. P. S. Hiremath

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.08, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

Blockchain technology is a decentralized ledger system that finds applications in various domains such as banking, e-governance, and supply chain management. The consensus algorithm plays a crucial role in any blockchain network as it directly impacts the network's performance and security. There have been several proposed consensus mechanisms in the literature, including Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), Robust Proof of Stake (RPoS), and Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS). Both Ethereum and Bitcoin utilize the PoW consensus mechanism, where nodes compete to solve puzzles in order to generate blocks, consuming significant processing power. On the other hand, the PoS consensus mechanism selects miners based on the stakes they hold, making it more energy efficient. However, PoS has drawbacks such as vulnerability to coin age accumulation attacks and the potential for partial centralization. In this work, we present a consensus mechanism known as Delegated Proof of Stake with Downgrading Mechanism using Game Theory (DDPoS (GT)). This mechanism employs a two-step game strategy to divide nodes into strong and weak nodes, as well as attack and non-attack nodes. Later, the results of the two games are combined to enhance protocol efficiency and security. Experimental results using a private Ethereum-based network demonstrate that DDPoS (GT) performs better than PoS and DPoS in terms of transaction latency, average block waiting time, and fairness.

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A Novel Approach of DDOS Attack Classification with Genetic Algorithm-optimized Spiking Neural Network

By Anuradha Pawar Nidhi Tiwari

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.09, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

Spiking Neural Network (SNN) use spiking neurons that transmit information through discrete spikes, similar to the way biological neurons communicate through action potentials. This unique property of SNNs makes them suitable for applications that require real-time processing and low power consumption. This paper proposes a new method for detecting DDoS attacks using a spiking neural network (SNN) with a distance-based rate coding mechanism and optimizing the SNN using a genetic algorithm (GA). The proposed GA-SNN approach achieved a remarkable accuracy rate of 99.98% in detecting DDoS attacks, outperforming existing state-of-the-art methods. The GA optimization approach helps to overcome the challenges of setting the initial weights and biases in the SNN, and the distance-based rate coding mechanism enhances the accuracy of the SNN in detecting DDoS attacks. Additionally, the proposed approach is designed to be computationally efficient, which is essential for practical implementation in real-time systems. Overall, the proposed GA-SNN approach is a promising solution for accurate and efficient detection of DDoS attacks in network security applications.

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A Hybrid Intrusion Detection System to Mitigate Biomedical Malicious Nodes

By Mohammed Abdessamad Goumidi Ehlem Zigh Naima Hadj-Said Adda Belkacem Ali-Pacha

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.02.10, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2024

This paper proposes an intrusion detection system to prevent malicious node attacks that may result in failure links in wireless body area networks. The system utilizes a combination of Optimized Convolutional Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine techniques to classify nodes as malicious or not, and links as failure or not. In case of detection, the system employs a trust-based routing strategy to isolate malicious nodes or failure links and ensure a secure path. Furthermore, sensitive data is encrypted using a modified RSA encryption algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate the improved network performance in terms of data rate, delay, packet delivery ratio, energy consumption, and network security, by providing effective protection against malicious node attacks and failure links. The proposed system achieves the highest classification rate and sensitivity, surpassing similar methods in all evaluation metrics.

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D2D Communication Using Distributive Deep Learning with Coot Bird Optimization Algorithm

By Nethravathi H. M. Akhila S. Vinayakumar Ravi

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.05.01, Pub. Date: 8 Oct. 2023

D2D (Device-to-device) communication has a major role in communication technology with resource and power allocation being a major attribute of the network. The existing method for D2D communication has several problems like slow convergence, low accuracy, etc. To overcome these, a D2D communication using distributed deep learning with a coot bird optimization algorithm has been proposed. In this work, D2D communication is combined with the Coot Bird Optimization algorithm to enhance the performance of distributed deep learning. Reducing the interference of eNB with the use of deep learning can achieve near-optimal throughput. Distributed deep learning trains the devices as a group and it works independently to reduce the training time of the devices. This model confirms the independent resource allocation with optimized power value and the least Bit Error Rate for D2D communication while sustaining the quality of services. The model is finally trained and tested successfully and is found to work for power allocation with an accuracy of 99.34%, giving the best fitness of 80%, the worst fitness value of 46%, mean value of 6.76 and 0.55 STD value showing better performance compared to the existing works.

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Classification of HHO-based Machine Learning Techniques for Clone Attack Detection in WSN

By Ramesh Vatambeti Vijay Kumar Damera Karthikeyan H. Manohar M. Sharon Roji Priya C. M. S. Mekala

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.06.01, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2023

Thanks to recent technological advancements, low-cost sensors with dispensation and communication capabilities are now feasible. As an example, a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network in which the nodes are mobile computers that exchange data with one another over wireless connections rather than relying on a central server. These inexpensive sensor nodes are particularly vulnerable to a clone node or replication assault because of their limited processing power, memory, battery life, and absence of tamper-resistant hardware. Once an attacker compromises a sensor node, they can create many copies of it elsewhere in the network that share the same ID. This would give the attacker complete internal control of the network, allowing them to mimic the genuine nodes' behavior. This is why scientists are so intent on developing better clone assault detection procedures. This research proposes a machine learning based clone node detection (ML-CND) technique to identify clone nodes in wireless networks. The goal is to identify clones effectively enough to prevent cloning attacks from happening in the first place. Use a low-cost identity verification process to identify clones in specific locations as well as around the globe. Using the Optimized Extreme Learning Machine (OELM), with kernels of ELM ideally determined through the Horse Herd Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithm (HHO), this technique safeguards the network from node identity replicas. Using the node identity replicas, the most reliable transmission path may be selected. The procedure is meant to be used to retrieve data from a network node. The simulation result demonstrates the performance analysis of several factors, including sensitivity, specificity, recall, and detection.

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A Critical appraisal on Password based Authentication

By Amanpreet A. Kaur Khurram K. Mustafa

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2019.01.05, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2019

There is no doubt that, even after the development of many other authentication schemes, passwords remain one of the most popular means of authentication. A review in the field of password based authentication is addressed, by introducing and analyzing different schemes of authentication, respective advantages and disadvantages, and probable causes of the ‘very disconnect’ between user and password mechanisms. The evolution of passwords and how they have deep-rooted in our life is remarkable. This paper addresses the gap between the user and industry perspectives of password authentication, the state of art of password authentication and how the most investigated topic in password authentication changed over time. The author’s tries to distinguish password based authentication into two levels ‘User Centric Design Level’ and the ‘Machine Centric Protocol Level’ under one framework. The paper concludes with the special section covering the ways in which password based authentication system can be strengthened on the issues which are currently holding-in the password based authentication.

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Statistical Techniques for Detecting Cyberattacks on Computer Networks Based on an Analysis of Abnormal Traffic Behavior

By Zhengbing Hu Roman Odarchenko Sergiy Gnatyuk Maksym Zaliskyi Anastasia Chaplits Sergiy Bondar Vadim Borovik

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2020.06.01, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2020

Represented paper is currently topical, because of year on year increasing quantity and diversity of attacks on computer networks that causes significant losses for companies. This work provides abilities of such problems solving as: existing methods of location of anomalies and current hazards at networks, statistical methods consideration, as effective methods of anomaly detection and experimental discovery of choosed method effectiveness. The method of network traffic capture and analysis during the network segment passive monitoring is considered in this work. Also, the processing way of numerous network traffic indexes for further network information safety level evaluation is proposed. Represented methods and concepts usage allows increasing of network segment reliability at the expense of operative network anomalies capturing, that could testify about possible hazards and such information is very useful for the network administrator. To get a proof of the method effectiveness, several network attacks, whose data is storing in specialised DARPA dataset, were chosen. Relevant parameters for every attack type were calculated. In such a way, start and termination time of the attack could be obtained by this method with insignificant error for some methods.

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Social Engineering: I-E based Model of Human Weakness for Attack and Defense Investigations

By Wenjun Fan Kevin Lwakatare Rong Rong

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2017.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2017

Social engineering is the attack aimed to manipulate dupe to divulge sensitive information or take actions to help the adversary bypass the secure perimeter in front of the information-related resources so that the attacking goals can be completed. Though there are a number of security tools, such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems which are used to protect machines from being attacked, widely accepted mechanism to prevent dupe from fraud is lacking. However, the human element is often the weakest link of an information security chain, especially, in a human-centered environment. In this paper, we reveal that the human psychological weaknesses result in the main vulnerabilities that can be exploited by social engineering attacks. Also, we capture two essential levels, internal characteristics of human nature and external circumstance influences, to explore the root cause of the human weaknesses. We unveil that the internal characteristics of human nature can be converted into weaknesses by external circumstance influences. So, we propose the I-E based model of human weakness for social engineering investigation. Based on this model, we analyzed the vulnerabilities exploited by different techniques of social engineering, and also, we conclude several defense approaches to fix the human weaknesses. This work can help the security researchers to gain insights into social engineering from a different perspective, and in particular, enhance the current and future research on social engineering defense mechanisms.

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Machine Learning-based Intrusion Detection Technique for IoT: Simulation with Cooja

By Ali H. Farea Kerem Kucuk

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2024.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2024

The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the promising technologies of the future. It offers many attractive features that we depend on nowadays with less effort and faster in real-time. However, it is still vulnerable to various threats and attacks due to the obstacles of its heterogeneous ecosystem, adaptive protocols, and self-configurations. In this paper, three different 6LoWPAN attacks are implemented in the IoT via Contiki OS to generate the proposed dataset that reflects the 6LoWPAN features in IoT. For analyzed attacks, six scenarios have been implemented. Three of these are free of malicious nodes, and the others scenarios include malicious nodes. The typical scenarios are a benchmark for the malicious scenarios for comparison, extraction, and exploration of the features that are affected by attackers. These features are used as criteria input to train and test our proposed hybrid Intrusion Detection and Prevention System (IDPS) to detect and prevent 6LoWPAN attacks in the IoT ecosystem. The proposed hybrid IDPS has been trained and tested with improved accuracy on both KoU-6LoWPAN-IoT and Edge IIoT datasets. In the proposed hybrid IDPS for the detention phase, the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier achieved the highest accuracy among the models in both the 2-class and N-class. Before the accuracy improved in our proposed dataset with the 4-class and 2-class mode, the ANN classifier achieved 95.65% and 99.95%, respectively, while after the accuracy optimization reached 99.84% and 99.97%, respectively. For the Edge IIoT dataset, before the accuracy improved with the 15-class and 2-class modes, the ANN classifier achieved 95.14% and 99.86%, respectively, while after the accuracy optimized up to 97.64% and 99.94%, respectively. Also, the decision tree-based models achieved lightweight models due to their lower computational complexity, so these have an appropriate edge computing deployment. Whereas other ML models reach heavyweight models and are required more computational complexity, these models have an appropriate deployment in cloud or fog computing in IoT networks.

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Forensics Image Acquisition Process of Digital Evidence

By Erhan Akbal Sengul Dogan

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2018.05.01, Pub. Date: 8 May 2018

For solving the crimes committed on digital materials, they have to be copied. An evidence must be copied properly in valid methods that provide legal availability. Otherwise, the material cannot be used as an evidence. Image acquisition of the materials from the crime scene by using the proper hardware and software tools makes the obtained data legal evidence. Choosing the proper format and verification function when image acquisition affects the steps in the research process. For this purpose, investigators use hardware and software tools. Hardware tools assure the integrity and trueness of the image through write-protected method. As for software tools, they provide usage of certain write-protect hardware tools or acquisition of the disks that are directly linked to a computer. Image acquisition through write-protect hardware tools assures them the feature of forensic copy. Image acquisition only through software tools do not ensure the forensic copy feature. During the image acquisition process, different formats like E01, AFF, DD can be chosen. In order to provide the integrity and trueness of the copy, hash values have to be calculated using verification functions like SHA and MD series. In this study, image acquisition process through hardware-software are shown. Hardware acquisition of a 200 GB capacity hard disk is made through Tableau TD3 and CRU Ditto. The images of the same storage are taken through Tableau, CRU and RTX USB bridge and through FTK imager and Forensic Imager; then comparative performance assessment results are presented.

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Public vs Private vs Hybrid vs Community - Cloud Computing: A Critical Review

By Sumit Goyal

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2014.03.03, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2014

These days cloud computing is booming like no other technology. Every organization whether it’s small, mid-sized or big, wants to adapt this cutting edge technology for its business. As cloud technology becomes immensely popular among these businesses, the question arises: Which cloud model to consider for your business? There are four types of cloud models available in the market: Public, Private, Hybrid and Community. This review paper answers the question, which model would be most beneficial for your business. All the four models are defined, discussed and compared with the benefits and pitfalls, thus giving you a clear idea, which model to adopt for your organization.

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Optimal Route Based Advanced Algorithm using Hot Link Split Multi-Path Routing Algorithm

By Akhilesh A. Waoo Sanjay Sharma Manjhari Jain

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2014.08.07, Pub. Date: 8 Jul. 2014

Present research work describes advancement in standard routing protocol AODV for mobile ad-hoc networks. Our mechanism sets up multiple optimal paths with the criteria of bandwidth and delay to store multiple optimal paths in the network. At time of link failure, it will switch to next available path. We have used the information that we get in the RREQ packet and also send RREP packet to more than one path, to set up multiple paths, It reduces overhead of local route discovery at the time of link failure and because of this End to End Delay and Drop Ratio decreases. The main feature of our mechanism is its simplicity and improved efficiency. This evaluates through simulations the performance of the AODV routing protocol including our scheme and we compare it with HLSMPRA (Hot Link Split Multi-Path Routing Algorithm) Algorithm. Indeed, our scheme reduces routing load of network, end to end delay, packet drop ratio, and route error sent. The simulations have been performed using network simulator OPNET. The network simulator OPNET is discrete event simulation software for network simulations which means it simulates events not only sending and receiving packets but also forwarding and dropping packets. This modified algorithm has improved efficiency, with more reliability than Previous Algorithm.

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Synthesis of the Structure of a Computer System Functioning in Residual Classes

By Victor Krasnobayev Alexandr Kuznetsov Kateryna Kuznetsova

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2023

An important task of designing complex computer systems is to ensure high reliability. Many authors investigate this problem and solve it in various ways. Most known methods are based on the use of natural or artificially introduced redundancy. This redundancy can be used passively and/or actively with (or without) restructuring of the computer system. This article explores new technologies for improving fault tolerance through the use of natural and artificially introduced redundancy of the applied number system. We consider a non-positional number system in residual classes and use the following properties: independence, equality, and small capacity of residues that define a non-positional code structure. This allows you to: parallelize arithmetic calculations at the level of decomposition of the remainders of numbers; implement spatial spacing of data elements with the possibility of their subsequent asynchronous independent processing; perform tabular execution of arithmetic operations of the base set and polynomial functions with single-cycle sampling of the result of a modular operation. Using specific examples, we present the calculation and comparative analysis of the reliability of computer systems. The conducted studies have shown that the use of non-positional code structures in the system of residual classes provides high reliability. In addition, with an increase in the bit grid of computing devices, the efficiency of using the system of residual classes increases. Our studies show that in order to increase reliability, it is advisable to reserve small nodes and blocks of a complex system, since the failure rate of individual elements is always less than the failure rate of the entire computer system.

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Optimal Route Based Advanced Algorithm using Hot Link Split Multi-Path Routing Algorithm

By Akhilesh A. Waoo Sanjay Sharma Manjhari Jain

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2014.08.07, Pub. Date: 8 Jul. 2014

Present research work describes advancement in standard routing protocol AODV for mobile ad-hoc networks. Our mechanism sets up multiple optimal paths with the criteria of bandwidth and delay to store multiple optimal paths in the network. At time of link failure, it will switch to next available path. We have used the information that we get in the RREQ packet and also send RREP packet to more than one path, to set up multiple paths, It reduces overhead of local route discovery at the time of link failure and because of this End to End Delay and Drop Ratio decreases. The main feature of our mechanism is its simplicity and improved efficiency. This evaluates through simulations the performance of the AODV routing protocol including our scheme and we compare it with HLSMPRA (Hot Link Split Multi-Path Routing Algorithm) Algorithm. Indeed, our scheme reduces routing load of network, end to end delay, packet drop ratio, and route error sent. The simulations have been performed using network simulator OPNET. The network simulator OPNET is discrete event simulation software for network simulations which means it simulates events not only sending and receiving packets but also forwarding and dropping packets. This modified algorithm has improved efficiency, with more reliability than Previous Algorithm.

[...] Read more.
Classification of HHO-based Machine Learning Techniques for Clone Attack Detection in WSN

By Ramesh Vatambeti Vijay Kumar Damera Karthikeyan H. Manohar M. Sharon Roji Priya C. M. S. Mekala

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.06.01, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2023

Thanks to recent technological advancements, low-cost sensors with dispensation and communication capabilities are now feasible. As an example, a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a network in which the nodes are mobile computers that exchange data with one another over wireless connections rather than relying on a central server. These inexpensive sensor nodes are particularly vulnerable to a clone node or replication assault because of their limited processing power, memory, battery life, and absence of tamper-resistant hardware. Once an attacker compromises a sensor node, they can create many copies of it elsewhere in the network that share the same ID. This would give the attacker complete internal control of the network, allowing them to mimic the genuine nodes' behavior. This is why scientists are so intent on developing better clone assault detection procedures. This research proposes a machine learning based clone node detection (ML-CND) technique to identify clone nodes in wireless networks. The goal is to identify clones effectively enough to prevent cloning attacks from happening in the first place. Use a low-cost identity verification process to identify clones in specific locations as well as around the globe. Using the Optimized Extreme Learning Machine (OELM), with kernels of ELM ideally determined through the Horse Herd Metaheuristic Optimization Algorithm (HHO), this technique safeguards the network from node identity replicas. Using the node identity replicas, the most reliable transmission path may be selected. The procedure is meant to be used to retrieve data from a network node. The simulation result demonstrates the performance analysis of several factors, including sensitivity, specificity, recall, and detection.

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D2D Communication Using Distributive Deep Learning with Coot Bird Optimization Algorithm

By Nethravathi H. M. Akhila S. Vinayakumar Ravi

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.05.01, Pub. Date: 8 Oct. 2023

D2D (Device-to-device) communication has a major role in communication technology with resource and power allocation being a major attribute of the network. The existing method for D2D communication has several problems like slow convergence, low accuracy, etc. To overcome these, a D2D communication using distributed deep learning with a coot bird optimization algorithm has been proposed. In this work, D2D communication is combined with the Coot Bird Optimization algorithm to enhance the performance of distributed deep learning. Reducing the interference of eNB with the use of deep learning can achieve near-optimal throughput. Distributed deep learning trains the devices as a group and it works independently to reduce the training time of the devices. This model confirms the independent resource allocation with optimized power value and the least Bit Error Rate for D2D communication while sustaining the quality of services. The model is finally trained and tested successfully and is found to work for power allocation with an accuracy of 99.34%, giving the best fitness of 80%, the worst fitness value of 46%, mean value of 6.76 and 0.55 STD value showing better performance compared to the existing works.

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A Critical appraisal on Password based Authentication

By Amanpreet A. Kaur Khurram K. Mustafa

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2019.01.05, Pub. Date: 8 Jan. 2019

There is no doubt that, even after the development of many other authentication schemes, passwords remain one of the most popular means of authentication. A review in the field of password based authentication is addressed, by introducing and analyzing different schemes of authentication, respective advantages and disadvantages, and probable causes of the ‘very disconnect’ between user and password mechanisms. The evolution of passwords and how they have deep-rooted in our life is remarkable. This paper addresses the gap between the user and industry perspectives of password authentication, the state of art of password authentication and how the most investigated topic in password authentication changed over time. The author’s tries to distinguish password based authentication into two levels ‘User Centric Design Level’ and the ‘Machine Centric Protocol Level’ under one framework. The paper concludes with the special section covering the ways in which password based authentication system can be strengthened on the issues which are currently holding-in the password based authentication.

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Synthesis of the Structure of a Computer System Functioning in Residual Classes

By Victor Krasnobayev Alexandr Kuznetsov Kateryna Kuznetsova

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.01.01, Pub. Date: 8 Feb. 2023

An important task of designing complex computer systems is to ensure high reliability. Many authors investigate this problem and solve it in various ways. Most known methods are based on the use of natural or artificially introduced redundancy. This redundancy can be used passively and/or actively with (or without) restructuring of the computer system. This article explores new technologies for improving fault tolerance through the use of natural and artificially introduced redundancy of the applied number system. We consider a non-positional number system in residual classes and use the following properties: independence, equality, and small capacity of residues that define a non-positional code structure. This allows you to: parallelize arithmetic calculations at the level of decomposition of the remainders of numbers; implement spatial spacing of data elements with the possibility of their subsequent asynchronous independent processing; perform tabular execution of arithmetic operations of the base set and polynomial functions with single-cycle sampling of the result of a modular operation. Using specific examples, we present the calculation and comparative analysis of the reliability of computer systems. The conducted studies have shown that the use of non-positional code structures in the system of residual classes provides high reliability. In addition, with an increase in the bit grid of computing devices, the efficiency of using the system of residual classes increases. Our studies show that in order to increase reliability, it is advisable to reserve small nodes and blocks of a complex system, since the failure rate of individual elements is always less than the failure rate of the entire computer system.

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Two-Layer Security of Images Using Elliptic Curve Cryptography with Discrete Wavelet Transform

By Ganavi M. Prabhudeva S.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.02.03, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Information security is an important part of the current interactive world. It is very much essential for the end-user to preserve the confidentiality and integrity of their sensitive data. As such, information encoding is significant to defend against access from the non-authorized user. This paper is presented with an aim to build a system with a fusion of Cryptography and Steganography methods for scrambling the input image and embed into a carrier media by enhancing the security level. Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) is helpful in achieving high security with a smaller key size. In this paper, ECC with modification is used to encrypt and decrypt the input image. Carrier media is transformed into frequency bands by utilizing Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). The encrypted hash of the input is hidden in high-frequency bands of carrier media by the process of Least-Significant-Bit (LSB). This approach is successful to achieve data confidentiality along with data integrity. Data integrity is verified by using SHA-256. Simulation outcomes of this method have been analyzed by measuring performance metrics. This method enhances the security of images obtained with 82.7528db of PSNR, 0.0012 of MSE, and SSIM as 1 compared to other existing scrambling methods.

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Detecting Remote Access Network Attacks Using Supervised Machine Learning Methods

By Samuel Ndichu Sylvester McOyowo Henry Okoyo Cyrus Wekesa

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.02.04, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

Remote access technologies encrypt data to enforce policies and ensure protection. Attackers leverage such techniques to launch carefully crafted evasion attacks introducing malware and other unwanted traffic to the internal network. Traditional security controls such as anti-virus software, firewall, and intrusion detection systems (IDS) decrypt network traffic and employ signature and heuristic-based approaches for malware inspection. In the past, machine learning (ML) approaches have been proposed for specific malware detection and traffic type characterization. However, decryption introduces computational overheads and dilutes the privacy goal of encryption. The ML approaches employ limited features and are not objectively developed for remote access security. This paper presents a novel ML-based approach to encrypted remote access attack detection using a weighted random forest (W-RF) algorithm. Key features are determined using feature importance scores. Class weighing is used to address the imbalanced data distribution problem common in remote access network traffic where attacks comprise only a small proportion of network traffic. Results obtained during the evaluation of the approach on benign virtual private network (VPN) and attack network traffic datasets that comprise verified normal hosts and common attacks in real-world network traffic are presented. With recall and precision of 100%, the approach demonstrates effective performance. The results for k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) mean area under the curve (AUC) demonstrate that the approach effectively detects attacks in encrypted remote access network traffic, successfully averting attackers and network intrusions.

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Statistical Techniques for Detecting Cyberattacks on Computer Networks Based on an Analysis of Abnormal Traffic Behavior

By Zhengbing Hu Roman Odarchenko Sergiy Gnatyuk Maksym Zaliskyi Anastasia Chaplits Sergiy Bondar Vadim Borovik

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2020.06.01, Pub. Date: 8 Dec. 2020

Represented paper is currently topical, because of year on year increasing quantity and diversity of attacks on computer networks that causes significant losses for companies. This work provides abilities of such problems solving as: existing methods of location of anomalies and current hazards at networks, statistical methods consideration, as effective methods of anomaly detection and experimental discovery of choosed method effectiveness. The method of network traffic capture and analysis during the network segment passive monitoring is considered in this work. Also, the processing way of numerous network traffic indexes for further network information safety level evaluation is proposed. Represented methods and concepts usage allows increasing of network segment reliability at the expense of operative network anomalies capturing, that could testify about possible hazards and such information is very useful for the network administrator. To get a proof of the method effectiveness, several network attacks, whose data is storing in specialised DARPA dataset, were chosen. Relevant parameters for every attack type were calculated. In such a way, start and termination time of the attack could be obtained by this method with insignificant error for some methods.

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LCDT-M: Log-Cluster DDoS Tree Mitigation Framework Using SDN in the Cloud Environment

By Jeba Praba. J. R. Sridaran

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.02.05, Pub. Date: 8 Apr. 2023

In the cloud computing platform, DDoS (Distributed Denial-of-service) attacks are one of the most commonly occurring attacks. Research studies on DDoS mitigation rarely considered the data shift problem in real-time implementation. Concurrently, existing studies have attempted to perform DDoS attack detection. Nevertheless, they have been deficient regarding the detection rate. Hence, the proposed study proposes a novel DDoS mitigation scheme using LCDT-M (Log-Cluster DDoS Tree Mitigation) framework for the hybrid cloud environment. LCDT-M detects and mitigates DDoS attacks in the Software-Defined Network (SDN) based cloud environment. The LCDT-M comprises three algorithms: GFS (Greedy Feature Selection), TLMC (Two Log Mean Clustering), and DM (Detection-Mitigation) based on DT (Decision Tree) to optimize the detection of DDoS attacks along with mitigation in SDN. The study simulated the defined cloud environment and considered the data shift problem during the real-time implementation. As a result, the proposed architecture achieved an accuracy of about 99.83%, confirming its superior performance.

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Ensemble Learning Approach for Classification of Network Intrusion Detection in IoT Environment

By Priya R. Maidamwar Prasad P. Lokulwar Kailash Kumar

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5815/ijcnis.2023.03.03, Pub. Date: 8 Jun. 2023

Over the last two years,the number of cyberattacks has grown significantly, paralleling the emergence of new attack types as intruder’s skill sets have improved. It is possible to attack other devices on a botnet and launch a man-in-the-middle attack with an IOT device that is present in the home network. As time passes, an ever-increasing number of devices are added to a network. Such devices will be destroyed completely if one or both of them are disconnected from a network. Detection of intrusions in a network becomes more difficult because of this. In most cases, manual detection and intervention is ineffective or impossible. Consequently, it's vital that numerous types of network threats can be better identified with less computational complexity and time spent on processing. Numerous studies have already taken place, and specific attacks are being examined. In order to quickly detect an attack, an IDS uses a well-trained classification model. In this study, multi-layer perceptron classifier along with random forest is used to examine the accuracy, precision, recall and f-score of IDS. IoT environment-based intrusion related benchmark datasets UNSWNB-15 and N_BaIoT are utilized in the experiment. Both of these datasets are relatively newer than other datasets, which represents the latest attack. Additionally, ensembles of different tree sizes and grid search algorithms are employed to determine the best classifier learning parameters. The research experiment's outcomes demonstrate the effectiveness of the IDS model using random forest over the multi-layer perceptron neural network model since it outperforms comparable ensembles analyzed in the literature in terms of K-fold cross validation techniques.

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