Blockchain with Internet of Things: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Directions

Full Text (PDF, 593KB), PP.40-48

Views: 0 Downloads: 0


Hany F. Atlam 1,2,* Ahmed Alenezi 1 Madini O. Alassafi 1 Gary B. Wills 1

1. Electronic and Computer Science Dept., University of Southampton, Southampton, UK

2. Computer Science and Engineering Dept., Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt

* Corresponding author.


Received: 4 Nov. 2017 / Revised: 1 Jan. 2018 / Accepted: 9 Feb. 2018 / Published: 8 Jun. 2018

Index Terms

Blockchain, Blockchain with IoT, Internet of Things, Centralized, Decentralized


The Internet of Things (IoT) has extended the internet connectivity to reach not just computers and humans, but most of our environment things. The IoT has the potential to connect billions of objects simultaneously which has the impact of improving information sharing needs that result in improving our life. Although the IoT benefits are unlimited, there are many challenges facing adopting the IoT in the real world due to its centralized server/client model. For instance, scalability and security issues that arise due to the excessive numbers of IoT objects in the network. The server/client model requires all devices to be connected and authenticated through the server, which creates a single point of failure. Therefore, moving the IoT system into the decentralized path may be the right decision. One of the popular decentralization systems is blockchain. The Blockchain is a powerful technology that decentralizes computation and management processes which can solve many of IoT issues, especially security. This paper provides an overview of the integration of the blockchain with the IoT with highlighting the integration benefits and challenges. The future research directions of blockchain with IoT are also discussed. We conclude that the combination of blockchain and IoT can provide a powerful approach which can significantly pave the way for new business models and distributed applications.

Cite This Paper

Hany F. Atlam, Ahmed Alenezi, Madini O. Alassafi, Gary B. Wills, "Blockchain with Internet of Things: Benefits, Challenges, and Future Directions", International Journal of Intelligent Systems and Applications(IJISA), Vol.10, No.6, pp.40-48, 2018. DOI:10.5815/ijisa.2018.06.05


[1]H. F. Atlam, A. Alenezi, R. J. Walters, and G. B. Wills, “An Overview of Risk Estimation Techniques in Risk-based Access Control for the Internet of Things,” in Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Internet of Things, Big Data and Security (IoTBDS 2017), 2017, pp. 254–260.
[2]K. Ashton, “That ‘Internet of Things’ Thing,” RFiD J., p. 4986, 2009.
[3]ITU, “Overview of the Internet of things,” Ser. Y Glob. Inf. infrastructure, internet Protoc. Asp. next-generation networks - Fram. Funct. Archit. Model., p. 22, 2012.
[4]E. Karafiloski, “Blockchain Solutions for Big Data Challenges A Literature Review,” in IEEE EUROCON 2017 -17th International Conference on Smart Technologies, 2017, no. July, pp. 6–8.
[5]A. Stanciu, “Blockchain based distributed control system for Edge Computing,” in 21st International Conference on Control Systems and Computer Science Blockchain, 2017, pp. 667–671.
[6]A. Banafa, “IoT and Blockchain Convergence: Benefits and Challenges,” IEEE IoT Newsletter, 2017. [Online]. Available:
[7]IBM, “ADEPT: An IoT Practitioner Perspective,” 2015.
[8]J. H. Ziegeldorf, F. Grossmann, M. Henze, N. Inden, and K. Wehrle, “CoinParty: Secure Multi-Party Mixing of Bitcoins,” in Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Data and Application Security and Privacy - CODASPY ’15, 2015, no. August, pp. 75–86.
[9]C. Jentzsch, “Decentralized Autonomous Organization to Automate Governance,” white Pap., pp. 1–30, 2016.
[10]A. Dorri, S. S. Kanhere, and R. Jurdak, “Blockchain in internet of things: Challenges and Solutions,” arXiv1608.05187 [cs], no. August, 2016.
[11]N. Gupta, A. Jha, and P. Roy, “Adopting Blockchain Technology for Electronic Health Record Interoperability,” 2016.
[12]A. Ekblaw, A. Azaria, J. D. Halamka, and A. Lippman, “A Case Study for Blockchain in Healthcare:‘MedRec’ prototype for electronic health records and medical research data,” Proc. IEEE Open Big Data Conf., pp. 1–13, 2016.
[13]W. Stallings, “The Internet of Things: Network and Security Architecture,” Internet Protoc. J., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 2–24, 2015.
[14]A. Torkaman and M. A. Seyyedi, “Analyzing IoT Reference Architecture Models,” Int. J. Comput. Sci. Softw. Eng. ISSN, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 2409–4285, 2016.
[15]Cisco, “The Internet of Things Reference Model,” White Pap., pp. 1–12, 2014.
[16]Nir Kshetri, “Can blockchain Strengthen the Internet of Things?,” IEEE Compu ter So ciet y, no. August, pp. 68–72, 2017.
[17]M. Conoscenti, D. Torino, A. Vetr, D. Torino, and J. C. De Martin, “Peer to Peer for Privacy and Decentralization in the Internet of Things,” in 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering Companion Peer, 2017, pp. 288–290.
[18]S. Nakamoto, “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System,” Www.Bitcoin.Org, p. 9, 2008.
[19]T. Ahram, A. Sargolzaei, S. Sargolzaei, J. Daniels, and B. Amaba, “Blockchain technology innovations,” 2017 IEEE Technol. Eng. Manag. Conf., no. 2016, pp. 137–141, 2017.
[20]M. Conoscenti, A. Vetro, and J. C. De Martin, “Blockchain for the Internet of Things: A systematic literature review,” 2016 IEEE/ACS 13th Int. Conf. Comput. Syst. Appl., pp. 1–6, 2016.
[21]A. M. Antonopoulos, Mastering Bitcoin: Unlocking Digital Cryptocurrencies. , M 1st ed. Sebastopol, CA, USA: O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2014.
[22]A. Dorri, S. S. Kanhere, R. Jurdak, and P. Gauravaram, “Blockchain for IoT security and privacy: The case study of a smart home,” 2017 IEEE Int. Conf. Pervasive Comput. Commun. Work. (PerCom Work., pp. 618–623, 2017.
[23]V. Daza, R. Di Pietro, I. Klimek, and M. Signorini, “CONNECT: CONtextual NamE disCovery for blockchain-based services in the IoT,” IEEE Int. Conf. Commun., 2017.
[24]H. F. Atlam, A. Alenezi, R. J. Walters, G. B. Wills, and J. Daniel, “Developing an adaptive Risk-based access control model for the Internet of Things,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData), 2017, no. June, pp. 655–661.
[25]A. Boudguiga et al., “Towards Better Availability and Accountability for IoT Updates by means of a Blockchain,” in 2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy Workshops (EuroS&PW), 2017, pp. 50–58.
[26]H. F. Atlam, A. Alenezi, A. Alharthi, R. Walters, and G. Wills, “Integration of cloud computing with internet of things: challenges and open issues,” in 2017 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData), 2017, no. June, pp. 670–675.
[27]H. F. Atlam, A. Alenezi, R. K. Hussein, and G. B. Wills, “Validation of an Adaptive Risk-based Access Control Model for the Internet of Things,” I.J. Comput. Netw. Inf. Secur., no. January, pp. 26–35, 2018.
[28]M. Samaniego and R. Deters, “Blockchain as a Service for IoT,” 2016 IEEE Int. Conf. Internet Things IEEE Green Comput. Commun. IEEE Cyber, Phys. Soc. Comput. IEEE Smart Data, pp. 433–436, 2016.
[29]D. Geist, “Using the Bitcoin Blockchain as a Botnet Resilience Mechanism,” 2016.
[30]K. Christidis and G. S. Member, “Blockchains and Smart Contracts for the Internet of Things,” IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 2292–2303, 2016.
[31]S. Huh, S. Cho, and S. Kim, “Managing IoT Devices using Blockchain Platform,” in The 19th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Communications Technology (ICACT 2017), 2017, pp. 464–467.
[32]T. Bocek, B. B. Rodrigues, T. Strasser, and B. Stiller, “Blockchains Everywhere - A Use-case of Blockchains in the Pharma Supply-Chain,” in 2017 IFIP/IEEE International Symposium on Integrated Network Management (IM2017):, 2017, pp. 772–777.
[33]A. Alenezi, N. H. N. Zulkipli, H. F. Atlam, R. J. Walters, and G. B. Wills, “The Impact of Cloud Forensic Readiness on Security,” in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Cloud Computing and Services Science (CLOSER 2017), 2017, pp. 511–517.
[34]H. F. Atlam, G. Attiya, and N. El-Fishawy, “Integration of Color and Texture Features in CBIR System,” Int. J. Comput. Appl., vol. 164, no. April, pp. 23–28, 2017.
[35]Diana Asatryan, “4 Challenges to Blockchain Adoption From Fidelity CEO,” 2017. .
[36]H. F. Atlam, M. O. Alassafi, A. Alenezi, R. J. Walters, and G. B. Wills, “XACML for Building Access Control Policies in Internet of Things,” in in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Internet of Things, Big Data and Security (IoTBDS 2018), 2018, pp. 1–6.